State of Jammu and KashmirCapital: Srinagar (summer) Jammu (winter)
Area: 2,22,236 sq km
Date of Formation: 26 Oct 1947
Neighbouring States: Himachal Pradesh, Punjab. Countries: Pakistan, Afghanistan and China.
Population: 12,548,926. Males: 6,665,561, Females: 5,883,365, Sex ratio: 883, Density: 124, Decadal growth: 23.71%, Literacy: 7,245,053 (total 68.74%, male 78.26, female 58.01%).
No of districts: 22, Villages: 6,417, Towns: 75
Legislative Bodie: State Legislature-Bicameral: Assembly: 87 (originally 100 but parts of it are illegally under POK): Legislative Council: 36 Parliament-Lok Sabha Seats: 6: Rajya Sabha Seats:4
Main Political Parties: Jamu and Kashmir National Conference: INC People’s Democratic Party J&K National Panthers Party CPI-M, J&M Awami League, Democratic Movement, BSP, BJP.
Seat of High Court: Srinagar and Jammu
Chief Languages: Urdu (official), Kashmiri, Dogri, Pahari, Dalti, Ladakhi, Purig Punjabi, Gurji, Dadri.
Major Religions: Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism.
Main Towns: Srinagar, Jammu, Keh, Anantnag, Baramula, Pulwama, Punch, Doda Udhapmpur, Gilgit, Punch.
Geography: Location (degrees): 32.15 & 37.05 N-72.35&83.20E
(a) Rivers: Chenab, Zanskar, Indus, Jhelum, Suru, Nubra and Shyok
(b) Mountains: (divided into 4 re gions) Khandi Belt- Greater Himalayas, Great Larakoram, Trans-Himalaya: Siwalik renge-Zaskar range, Kunlun: Kashmir Valley-Pirpanjal range: Tibetan tract-Ladakh range
(c) Lakes: Wular, Dal, Pangong, Achar, Moriri, and kar (Mountain Lakes-Satsar, Vishansar, Kishansar, Gadsar, Gangabal)
(d) Pass Zoji La Pass
(e) Range Pir Panjal Great Himalaya, Zanskar, Ladakh Ladakh is also called ‘Little Tibet’ and sometimes the last Shangri La This region is marked by Buddhist monasteries (gompas) and forts. Hemis Gompa-Leh offers some tough mountain treks to Zanskar valley-Pangong Lake-Tso Moririi Lake. The highest point there is at Zoji-La-Pass.
(a) Minerals: Mica, fire clay, limestone kaolin, bauxite
(b) Industries: Handicrafts, carpet, wood carving, shawl-making
(c) Agricultural Products: Paddy, maize wheat, gram, bajra jowar, barley, fruits like apple and walnuts 80% people depend on agriculture.
Transport & Communications:
(a) Road Length: 25,578km
(b) Main Railway Stations: Jammu, Udhampur. The railway line will be extended to Srinagar and Baramulla (c) Airports: Sheikh-ul-Alam international-Srinagar, Jammu, Leh and Kargil.
Shopping: Chikindozi-hookwork-jalakdozi-rafookari-Pashmina, Kashida embroidery sonzi-fine needle work and shaals, silver jewellery, etc.
(a) Dances: Kud (Dogra men), Hemis Gumpa and Ruf (Women-romance and heroic)
(b) Festivals: Assuj, Lohri,Sinh Sankranti, Bahu Mela in Jammu, Mela Losar, Mela pat: ld-ul-fitr, ld-ul-Zuha, ld Milad-un-Nabi Meraj Alam in Kashmir, Muharram, Hemis in Ladakh.
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