Types of Soil in India - Soils of India

ALLUVIAL SOIL
Composition: Rich in potash and lime but deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus.
States where Found in : Haryana, Punjab, Jharkhand, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh
Crops Grow: Large variety of rabi and kharif crops such as wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton and jute etc.

BLACK SOIL (or Regular Soil)
Composition: Rich in iron, lime, aluminium, magnesium, calcium, but lacks in nitrojen, phosphorus and humus.
State where Found in: Deccan Plateau, Andhra Pradesh, Valleys of Krishna and Godavari, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Crops Grow: Cotton, sugarcane, jowar, tobacco, wheat and rice.

RED SOIL
Composition: Rich in iron and potash, but different in lime, nitrogen, phosphorus and humus.
State where Found in: Eastern part of Deccan Plateau, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Odisha and Meghalaya
Crops grow: Wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane and pulses.

LATERITE SOIL
Composition: Rich in iron but poor ion silica, lime, phosphorus, potash and humus.
State where Found in: Summits of Western and Eastern Ghats, Assam hills, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Paschim Banga and Odisha.
Crops Grow: Tea, coffee, rubber, cashew and millets.

DESERT SOIL
Composition: Rich in soluble salts, but different in organic matter.
State where Found in: West and North-West India, Rajasthan, North Gujarat and Southern Punjab.
Crops Grow: Generally unsuitable for cultivation, but with irrigation useful for cultivation of drought-resistant lime, millets, barley, cotton, maize and pulses.

MOUNTAIN SOIL
Composition: Rich in iron and humus, but deficient in lime.
State where Found in: Hills of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Assam Hills.
Crops grow: With fertilizers, tea, fruits and medicinal plants can be grown.

SALINE AND ALKALINE SOIL
Composition: Several salts such as sodium, magnesium and calsium.
State where Found in: Drier parts of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Maharashtra.
Crops grow: Unfit for agriculture.

PEATY AND MARSHY SOIL 
Composition: Contain large amount of soluble salts and organic matter, but lack in potash and phosphates.
Crops grow: Fit for rice and jute cultivation.
Posted by - Blog Author: 2:36 PM Last Updated at: 2:36 PM

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