General Awareness - Basic, Applied, General Chemistry Notes - Part 1

Basic Chemistry - General Chemistry - Applied Chemistry Notes for all Competitive Exams - Part I

  • The purest form of carbon is Diamond. 
  • A Mixture of water and alcohol can be separated by distillation. 
  • Radiocarbon Dating, widely employed to determine the age of objects of animal of vegetable origin involves the radioisotope carbon 14. 
  • The use of ozone kills Micro-organisms in water. 
  • Electrons in motion behave as if they were waves. 
  • Sodium is soluble in benzene and ether. 
  • Sun's material is of H2 and He 90%.
  • From liquid air oxygen is prepared by Clud's process. 
  • Ozone gas turns silver into black. 
  • Graphite and heavy water can be used as a moderator in atomic reactors. 
  • Citric acid makes a lemon sour in taste. 
  • A catalyst decreases the activation energy and alter the rate Mechanism.  
  • Fluming sulphuric acid is called oleum. 
  • The atoms of metals tend to lose electrons. 
  • Pure water contains O2 up to the level of 89%.
  • Water boils at 100oCunder a pressure of 760mm of Hg.
  • Two solutions are said to be isotonic when they have the same somatic pressure. 
  • The element which forms the largest number of compounds with hydrogen is carbon. 
  • Gypsum is added to cement clinker to decrease the rate of setting of cement. 
  • The industrial preparation of metal aluminium from bauxite involves the process of electrolysis. 
  • Molecular weight of the gas is equal to 2 X vapour density. 
  • Phosphorus is kept under water to save it from catching fire when exposed to dry air. 
  • During the burning of fuel carbon and hydrogen present in fuels are converted into CO2 and H20 vapor. 
  • Helium is preferred to hydrogen in air balloons because it does not form an explosive mixture with air. 
  • The pure crystalline form of Silica used in scientific apparatus for passing UV-light is called quartz glass. 
  • Wood charcoal is obtained by burning wood out of contact with air. 
  • Steel contains 0.1-2% of carbon. 
  • The solubility of gases in liquids increases with increases of pressure. 
  • A transuranic element is one which has a higher atomic number than Uranium and is thus radioactive in nature. 
  • The atomicity of an atom is the number of atoms in one molecule of it. 
  • Highly electropositive metals are extracted by electrolytic reduction. 
  • Soda water is the solution of CO gas in water.
  • Uranium is naturally occurring radioactive element which emits a-particles and is converted into thorium. 
  • Nitrogen fertilizer having maximum amount of Nitrogen is urea. 
  • Water is called 'the Standard Solvent' 
  • The phenomenon of diffusion is utilized in uranium enrichment and perfume - spraying. 
  • The chief chemical component of pearls is calcium carbonate. 
  • Any gas contains zero volume at 273°C temperature. 
  • Absolute zero is the hypothetical temperature at which in gaseous state the molecular motion causes and the volume of the gas becomes zero. 
  • Nucleus is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of the atom. 
  • The percentage of lime in cement is 50. 
  • Rain water helps to increase the Calcium content to some extent.
  • Liquid sodium is used as a coolant in Nuclear reactors. 
  • Radioactivity happens only in heavier elements because only heavy nuclei will be unstable. 
  • The chemical name for marble is calcium carbonate. 
  • The minimum possible temperature beyond which matter cannot be cooled that IS-273.lS°C.
  • Atomic hydrogen has a life period of fraction of sound. 
  • The melting point of ice decreases by increasing pressure. 
  • If gas is expanded at constant temperature the pressure decreases but the kinetic energy of the molecules remains the same. 
  • Sulphur compounds are the most harmful pollutant for archaeological artifacts. 
  • The scattering of light in colloidal solution is called Tyndale effect. 
  • Lt. is difficult to measure the pollutant carbon monoxide (CO) in the atmosphere (as it's colourless, odourless and almost of the same density as air. 
  • The resistance of any pure metal increases with increases in temperature. 
  • In the process of radioactivity V-rays are emitted from the nuclei. 
  • Real gases obey Vander Waal's law. 
  • A gas has property of indefinite expansion and neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape. 
  • No dew is formed. When it is a cloudily conditions. 
  • The main constituents of table salt are sodium and chlorine. 
  • Carbon atoms are arranged in a tetrahedral configuration in Diamond. 
  • Dew formation increases: When the relative humidity of air is high. 
  • A gas is most soluble in a liquid at low temperature and high pressure. 
  • Bakelite is a thermosetting plastic, but not a natural one. 
  • As excited hydrogen atoms return to the ground sate they emit protons. 
  • Atoms are composed of electrons and nuclei (i.e.) protons and Neutrons. 
  • Zinc and copper make the terminals of the torch cell. 
  • Cobalt is useful in making rust-resistant alloys. 
  • Chlorine is used to kill germs in an Indoor swimming pool. 
  • In cold countries, alcohol is preferred to mercury as a thermometer liquid because alcohol has a very low freezing point
  • U-233 is derived from thorium. 
  • Gasohol is a combination of gasoline and ethyl alcohol. 
  • A petrol fire can be best extinguished by using water and halogenated hydro carbons. 
  • When a radioactive element emits a α-particle. 
  • Its atomic number is reduced by 2 and its atomic Mass by 4. But, when β-particles is lost it goes one place ahead in the periodic Table. 
  • If the pH-value of a given solution is made to decrease its acidity will increase. 
  • Water boils below 100°C at higher altitudes because atmospheric pressure is low there. 
  • The electronegativity of elements decrease while going down is a group in the Periodic Table. 
  • Sodium would burn when put into water. 
  • Calcium is extracted from electrolysis. 
  • Cathode rays are deflected by electric and magnetic field. 
  • Radio-isotopes of short half-lives produce very high level of radiation in a short period.
  • Hydrogen cannot be used as an automobile fuel because of its highly explosive nature. 
  • U-235 is the chief fuel used in nuclear reactors (only 0.7%) but the bulk of the natural Uranium is U-238. 
  • The volume of a gas increases with increase in temperature. Keeping pressure constants. 
  • The coolant used in fast breeder reactors is generally liquid sodium. 
  • Carbon is present in all common fuels. 
  • Bordeaux mixture is used as a fungicide. 
  • Gases mix by the process of diffusion. 
  • Metals are better conductors of heat because of ionic bonding. 
  • The element common in glass cement and quartz is silicon.
  • Click For Part II | Part III | Part IV
Posted by - Blog Author: 5:44 PM Last Updated at: 5:44 PM

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