Indian History - Timeline 1915 to 1947
1915 - Jan 9. Gandiji returns to India form South Africa: Feb 19. GK Gokhale dies: Mar 6.Gandhiji meets Rabindranath Tagore for the first: Jun 20 First Women's University established in Pune: Defense of India Act: Dec. Home Rule League-a movement started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
1916 - Lucknow Pact signed between INC and Muslim League: 28 Apr India Home Rule League started by Tilak at Poona: 25th Sep Home Rule League started by Annie Besant.
1917 - Annie Besant becomes President of India National Congress: Kaira Satyagraha in Gujarat: Mar. The first feature film of Bengal was JF Madan's Satyavadi Raja Harishchandra: Apr 10. Champaran Satyraha in Bihar, by Gandhiji to highlight the grievances of India go planters.
1918 - World War ends,
1919 - Mar 1 Gandhiji introduces 'satyagraha': Rowlatt Act intended to perpetuate the extraordinary powers provokes country- wide protests: Apr. 13 The massacre at Jalianwala Bagh, Amritsar (Punjab) killed 500 and injured 1500 publics by Gen. Reginald Dyer's soldiers; Ali brothers and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad start the Khilafat movement (for restoring the Turkish Khalifate) with Gandhiji's support. Montague-Chelmsford Reforms offered limited provincial autonomy to Indians: India becomes the member of the League of Nations.
1920 - Aug 1 'Lokmanya' Bal Gangadhar Tilak the revolutionary who said 'Swaraj is my birthright dies: Sept 10. INC okays Gandhiji's nonviolent Non-Cooperation movement against the Britsh government: Bonfire of British clothes to show popular dissatisfaction with the reforms. First meeting of the All India Trade Union Congres (under Narain Malhar Joshi).
1921 - Jan 9. The Duke of Connaught opens the new India Central Legislature in Delhi: Excavation under the supervision of Dayaram Sahani unfolds Harappa civilization at the bank of river Ravi in the Punjab province in Pakistan: Moplah or Mapilla (Muslim) rebellion in Musaliar and 37 other were sentenced to death: Nov Riots in Bombay as Gandhiji burns forign cloths coinciding with the visit of the Prince of Wales-INC boycotts Prince's visit Film-maker V Shantaram made his first screen appearance in a film titled Surekhn Haran: Dec 23. Vishwa Bharati University established.
1922 - Dr.RD Banerjee and his team excavates Mohenjodaro (in Sidhi means the mound of death): Civil Disobedience Movement: Congress makes Gandhiji sole leader of Bardoli satyagraha: Outburst of violence on Feb 12 at Chauri Chaura led to suspension of Civil Disobedience Movement by INC Mar 10. Gandhiji arrested for the first time in India: 18 Gandhiji, on charges of sedition, sentenced to 6-years 'simple imprisonment' ln south India the film industry took off with the screening of the first film Bhisma Pratigya. Swarajya Party started by C.R.Das and Motilal Nehru Moplah rebellion on the Malabar Coast in August.
1923 - Jan 1st Swaraj Party was formed by Motilal Nehru and others: Swarajists propose to enter the councils and wreck the government from within. Khijafat movement fizzles out as kemal Pasha declares Turkey a secular state. Apr.8 Plague in India: Indian Party started by Madan Mohan Malviya Sep 18 The INC agrees to launch the civil disobedience campaign: Gandhiji starts his 21 day fast in despair at Hind- Muslim riots. The 1st radio program was broadcast by the Radio Club of Bombay.
1924 - Feb 24 Gandhiji released from prison: Aug 21 Gandhiji elected President of INC inBelgaum: 25000 die due to plague: Sept.18 Gamdhiji starts 21 day hunger strike: Director and actor Homi Master's thriller film kala Naag, shifted the focus from mythological films to modern themes. The Communist Party of India formed in kanpur.
1925 - Death of C.R.Das: KB Hedgewar establishes Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Snagh (RSS) in Nagpur: EV Ramaswamy Naicker ''Periyar'' launches Self-respect Movement The first electric train ran on Feb.3 between Bombay VT and kurla The kakori Train Conspiracy case in August.
1926 - May 2. Women allowed to stand for election to public office in India.
1927 - Indian Navy Act: Simon Commission appointed to suggest future constitutional reforms in India: Jan.8 The first scheduled London-Delhi fight arrives: Muslim League splits. Broadcasting Services set up with 2 private transmissions from Bombay and Calcutta.
1928 - Feb.3 Simon Commission comes to India-an all India hartal is called by all parties, 28. Scientist CV Raman discovers the ‘Raman Effect: All Parties’ Conference-Muslim leaders leave the Conference: Aug.15 Motilal Nehru report demands constitutional framework of a free India: Nov 17 Lala Lajpat Raj dies: Dec 20 India Wins gold medal in hockey in Amsterdam Olympics.
1929 - Feb.10 JRD Tata becomes the first India to get a pilot’s license; Jawaharal Nehru elected President of INC;8 Apr. Bagat Singh and Batukeshwari Dutt throw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly; 31st Oct. Lord Irwin, Viceroy of India, promises Dominion Status for India; Now.5 The longest electric railway opens from Bombay to Poona for 116 miles; Sarda Act passed; prohibits marriage of girls below 14 and boys below 18 years of age. On the midnight of Dec.31, At Lahore session, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, as President of the Congress, demands Poorna Swaraj and hoists the tricolour at the banks of Ravi river at Lahore.
1930 - Jan.1. Gandhiji begins Civil Disobedience Movement; 26. Observed the first independence Day all over Ibdia; 14 Feb INC at Sabarmati approves Civil Disobedience movement. Mar. Gandhiji agrees to discontinue civil disobedience if Lord Irwin released political prisoners who had not been guilty of violence; Mar.12. Gandhiji begins Dandi March: Apr.6. Gandhiji defies salt-tax law at Dandi (salt satyagraha); Nov.30. First Round Table Commission recommends-for a federal India and separation from Burma: Dec.10. Noble Prize in Physics (Raman effect) awarded to Sir C.V.Raman. India forms Indian Broadcasting service.
1931 - Mar.4-5 Gandhi-Irwin Pact signed: Mar.14. Ardeshir Irani’s Alam Ara projected at Bombay’s Majestic Cinema: 23 Bagat Singh, such Dev and Rajguru were executed: Sep.7. Gandhiji attends the second Round Table conference. Returns on 28th Dec. Launches Civil Disobedience Movement. The INC declared unlawful.
1932 - Jan.4. Gandhiji arrested and imprisoned without trial: Jun.25. India cricketers begins their first Test Match at Lords against Douglas Jardine’s team.28 India lose their first Test Match: Oct.15. Air India’s Bombay-Karachi service inaugurated: India wins gold medal for hockey in Los Angeles Olympic. 16 Aug. British PM Ramsay Macdonald announced the infamous ‘’Communal Award’’ Gandhiji in jail begins his epic ‘fast unto death’ protesting the Communal Award on 20th Sept and ends the fast on 26th of the same month after the Poona pact. Nov 17. Third Round Table Conference.
1933 - White Paper on India reforms. Gandhiji released from prison as he begins fast for self-purification on 9th May INC suspends Civil Disobedience movement but authorizes Satyagraha by individuals.
1934 - Nov.19 The INC wins almost half the seats in elections to the Indian legislative assembly: Congress Socialist Party formed under the patronage of Acharya Narendea Dev: Civil Disobedience Movement called off: Bihar earthquake.
1935 - Agu.4th Government of India Act 1935 passed Gandhiji publishes Wardha Scheme of Basic Education in The Harijan.
1936 - Death of King George V: Accession of George VI: India wins the Berlin Olympic hockey gold medal. All India Radio formed.
1937 - The India constitution comes into being under Government of India Act: inauguration of Provincial Autonomy: Elections held in India under the Act of 1935 (Feb 1937) The INC contests election and forms ministries in several provinces (Jul 1937) British India divided into 11 provinces: Congress ministries formed in a majority of the provinces: India and Burma separated as per the Government of India Act.
1938 – Haripuraa session of INC was held on 19th Feb Subhash Chandra Boss was elected Congress president on the 20th of Feb.
1939 - Beginning of World War-ll: Political deadlock in India as Congress ministries resign: Subhash Chandra Bose resigns as the president of the INC in April. Subash Chandra Bose starts Forward Block Sep.the Viceroy declares that India too is at war(WWll) Between 27th October to 5th November, the Congresss ministries in the provinces resign in protest against the war policy of the British government.
1940 - Lahore session of the Muslim League passes the Pakistan Resolution in Marck: Viceroy Linlithgow announces-August Offer on 10th of August. Congress Working Committee rejects the ‘August offer’
1941 - Subash Chandra Bose escapes from India on 17 January: arrives in Berlin (Mar 28)
1942 - Mar.22. Cripps Mission arrives in India to find out a formula for India independence: Both Congress and Muslim League refuse Sir Stafford Cripps offer Aug. 7-8 Congress adopts Quit India Resolution. Gandhiji gives call for Door Die: Aug.9.Gandhiji and other Congress leaders were arrested 9th Aug Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose forms the India National Army in Malaya with the heip of the Japanese August Kranti movement, mass social upheaval as senior Congress leaders arrested and Congress declared an illegal body.
1943 - Bengal famine: Lord Wavell Viceroy and Governor General of India. Oct 1. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose inaugurates the Azad Hind Sarka ( Government of Free India ) in Singapore.
1944 – Gandhiji & jinnah talks break down on Pakistan issue.
1945 - The Indian National Army under Bose surrenders to the British after collapse of Japan Dec.31 Indian National Army personnel for treason in Red Fort, India Shimla Conference.
1946 - Jan 12. Demonetization of currency notes of the value of Rs.500 and above above: Demonstrations against the trial of the IN Demonstrations against the trial of the INA men, Feb.18.1100 naval ratings of signal school of HMIS Talwar in Bombay went on strike against racial discrimination: 19.Cabinet Mission comprising three ministers of the British cabinet-Lord Patrick Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and AV Alexander, arrives in India: Cabinet Mission announces its plan for an interim government and a constituent assembly-Congress accepts it. The interim government is formed by inducting only Congress nominees. The Muslim League takes umbrage and starts direct action Viceroy persuades the Muslim League to come in: September: Sporadic violence in Bombay 320 people were killed: Dec 9. Constituent Assembly’s first meeting: But the League declines to join the Constituent Assembly unless the demand for a separate State-Pakistan, is approved.
1947 - Jan 6. All India Congress Committee accepts partition of India by a majority vote of 99 in favour and 52 against the resolution: Jan 18 The great popular singer Kundan Lal Saigal dies in jalandhar: Feb 20. The British Prime Minister Clement Attlee proclaims in the House of Commons about the British intention to transfer power into reasonable Indian hands by a date not later than June 1948:20 Lord Mountbatten becomes the last Viceroy of India replacing Wavell, even as Britain prepares to transfer its power over India: Aug 15. India and Pakistan gain Dominion Status and a wave of violence and killing triggered by partition of Punjab and Bengal: May 29 The India Standards institution is established: June 2.Lord Mountbatten declares the British decision on partition on June 3 (known as June 3rd plan): India leaders accept decision of Lord Mountbatten on partition: Jul.15 India independence Bill passed by British bill and the House of Lords passed it the next day Aug 14. India is divided and Pakistan is created with full independence: The assets of the world’s largest empire which had been integrated in countless ways for more than a century divided. As son as the new borders were made known, about 1 crore Hindus Muslims and Sikhs fled from their houses on one side of the newly demarcated borders to what they believed to be their ‘shelter’ About 10 lakh people were slaughtered in communal massacres: Aug 15 India’s declared independent of British rule with New Delhi as capital: Jawaharlal Nehru is sworn in as the first Prime Minister by Lord Mountbatten (the last Governor General of India): All the 562 states except Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagarh incorporated in to the new federal union: Aug-Sept Punjab massacres: 27. Press Trust of India founded: Oct 22. Invasion of Kashmir by Pakistani tribesmen with the abetment of Pakistan Government: Accession of Kashmir to India.