Major Wars and Battles of the World - Part 1

List of Major Wars and Battles of World with Brief History and Cause of Wars and Battles

Around 1250 B.C. Trojan Wars 
Greeks vs. Trojans 

Legendary war fought after a Trojan prince kidnapped Helen from Sparta. After years of inconclusive battles, the Greeks built a wooden horse and his soldiers inside while claiming it was a gift for the Trojans. The h0rse was wheeled into Troy city. When night fell, Greek soldiers exited the horse, opened the gates of Troy, and their comrades entered to take the city. 

492-449 B.C Persian Wars 
Greeks VS. Persians 

After a series of Greek uprisings were suppressed, King Darius I of Persia sent troops to punish Athens. The Persians launched three campaigns and took heavy losses due to weather and resistance. Greek victory checked the Persian expansionist threat. 

Around 431-404 B.C. Peloponnesian War 
Athens vs. Sparta 

From 431-404 B.C. the city-state of Athens, together with its allies, and the citystate of Sparta through its Peloponnesian League went on war. Throughout its 27 year conflict, the war entered into three phases: first was the Archimadian War (431-421 B.C) wherein Sparta invaded the Atlantica while the Athens secured the Peloponnesian coast, resulting to an agreement known as the Peace of Nicias; second is the war during 413-415 B.C. between the state of Athens and Syracuse; and lastly is the Decelean War (4l3-4o4 B.C) wherein Sparta won against Athens through the help of the Persian empire and, consequently, ended the war. 

264-241 B.C. First Punic War 
Rome vs. Carthage 

Called by the Sicilian cities of Messana Syracuse to settle a dispute, Carthaginians then established a base on the island. Viewing this as a potential threat, Rome attacked, forcing the Carthaginians to withdraw. A final naval battle ended with Rome victorious. Rome gained territories on Sicily and later annexed Sardinia and Corsica. (Punic is the Roman word for "Phoenician" - Carthage was part of the Phoenician Empire) 

218-201 B.C. Second Punic War 
Greeks vs. Trojans 

Carthage expanded its power in Spain, but when it strove for the seaside city of Saguntum (present day Sagunto), which was allied with Rome, war once again broke out. Hannibal, the legendary Carthaginian general, marched his men from Spain across the Alps and into Italy. After many victories, the Romans eventually conquered the Carthaginians in the Battle of Zama (201 B.C.). Carthage was forced to give up its Spanish territories and its navy. 

149-146 B.C. Third Punic War 
Greeks vs. Persians 

Driven by a fear of a Carthaginian resurgence to power, the Romans destroyed Cartage in a battle that played itself out in the city streets. 

1095-1099 First Crusade 
Saracens vs. Christians 

In a series of holy wars, Christians fought Muslims for control of the Holy Land. The first war ended in 1099 when Christians defeated Egyptian Muslims near Jerusalem and went on to set up crusader states. All future crusades (eight, or some say nine, more) were unsuccessful. In 1291, the Muslims destroyed the last Christian outpost in the Holy Land in the Battle of Acre: the crusaders withdrew to Cyprus. 

1337-1453 Hundred Years War 
France vs. England 

Technically, The Hundred Years War lasted for 116 years - a series of conflicts between the countries of England and France from 1337 - 1453. It started when King Edward III of England invaded the country of France and ruled over its land as its King. For many years, England continued to usurp France's lands. However, in 1429, France, with the help of Scotland, was able to defy England's reign until it was completely liberated from the English rule in 1436 and exiling the English entirely in 1453. 

1455-1485 Wars of the Roses 
House of York vs. House of Lancaster 

The 3D-year conflict of the Wars of the Roses started from l455, at the St. Albans, to l487. It was a chain of civil wars fought between the House of Lancaster and the House of York for the supremacy in England. It was known to be the Wars of the Roses because both city-states had a symbol of rose in their flags: a red rose for the Lancastrians and a white one from the Yorkists. Although, many historians believe that the conflict actually started earlier in 1399 when Henry IV took over Richard II's crown. 

1618-1648 Thirty Years' War 
Germany, Austria, Spain vs. Denmark, Sweden, France 

Aptly known as the Thirty Years War, the conflict endured from l6l8 to l648. It was a series of wars which started from the dispute between the Protestants and the Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire, following the Reformation period. However, it eventually grew to a larger conflict involving other European powers who fought over political supremacy within the empire. These rivalries include those between the Bourbons and the Habsburgs, which both wanted to take control over the entire political arena. The war was considered to be the last major religious war in Europe. 

1642-48 English Civil War 
Cavaliers vs. Roundheads 

A power struggle between Parliament (Cavaliers) and King Charles I (Roundheads) was exacerbated by religious complications involving Scotland. In 1649, King Charles I was beheaded and a Commonwealth established. ( The monarchy would be reestablished in 1660.)

Major War of World - Part 2

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